Phebe Cramer

Professor of Psychology, Emerita

Address:
Department of Psychology
Bronfman Science Center
Williams College
Williamstown, MA 01267
Office Phone: (413) 597-2463
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: (413) 597-2085

Scholarship/Creative Work

DEFENSE MECHANISM MANUAL

Download PDF Version

BOOKS

Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action. (2006) New York: Guilford Press

Story-telling, Narrative and the Thematic Apperception Test. (1996) New York: Guilford Press.

The Development of Defense Mechanisms: Theory, Research and Assessment. (1991) New York: Springer-Verlag.

Understanding Intellectual Development: Three Approaches to Theory and Practice (with P. Ammon & W. Rohwer) (1974) Chicago: Dryden Press

Word Association. (1968) New York: Academic Press.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Cramer, Phebe. (2017) Identity change between late adolescence and early adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences, 104,538-543.

Porcerelli, John H., Cramer, Phebe, Porcerelli, Daniel J., Arterbery, & V. Elayne. (2017) Defense mechanisms and utilization in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A pilot study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,

Cramer, Phebe. (2017). Childhood Precursors of Narcissistic Personality Features. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 205, 679 – 684.

Cramer, Phebe. (in press). The development of defense mechanisms during the latency period.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Cramer, Phebe (2017). Using the TAT to assess the relation between gender identity and the use of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality Assessment, 99, 265-274.

Cramer, Phebe (2017). Defense mechanism card pull in TAT stories. Journal of Personality Assessment, 99, 15-24.

Cramer, Phebe (2017). Identity change between late adolescence and early adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 538-543.

Cramer, Phebe. (2016). Childhood precursors of adult borderline personality disorder features. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 494-499.

Cramer, Phebe. (2016). Working with Sidney Blatt: Developing interactions. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98, 26-29.

Cramer, Phebe and Porcerelli, John. (2016). Defense mechanisms. In: Howard S. Friedman (Editor in Chief), Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2nd edition, vol. 2, Waltham, MA: Academic Press, 13-17.

Cramer, Phebe. (2015). IQ and defense mechanisms assessed with the TAT. Rorschachiana, 36, 40-57.

Cramer, Phebe. (2015). Defense mechanisms. In The Encyclopedia of  Adulthood and Aging. Ed. S.K. Whitbourne, vol. 1, New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

Cramer, Phebe. (2015). Adolescent parenting, identification, and maladaptive narcissism. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 32, 559-579.

Cramer, Phebe. (2015). Understanding defense mechanisms. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 43, 523-552.

Cramer, Phebe. (2015). Change in children’s externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: The role of defense mechanisms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203, 215-221.

Cramer, Phebe. (2015). Defense mechanisms: 40 years of empirical research. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 114-122.

Cramer, Phebe. (2012). Psychological maturity and change in adult defense mechanisms. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 306-316.

Cramer, Phebe. (2011). Narcissism through the ages: What happens when narcissists grow older? Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 479-492.

Cramer, Phebe. (2011). Young adult narcissism: A 20 year longitudinal study of the contribution of parenting styles, preschool precursors of narcissism, and denial. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 19-28.

Cramer, Phebe & Kelly, Francis D. (2010). Attachment styles and defense mechanisms in parents who abuse their children. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 619-627.

Cramer, Phebe. (2009). Defense mechanisms and self-doubt. In R.M. Arkin, K.C. Oleson & P.J. Carroll (Eds.) Handbook of the Uncertain Self. New York: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis.

Cramer, Phebe. (2009). An increase in early adolescent undercontrol is associated with the use of denial. Journal of Personality Assessment. 91, 331-339.

Cramer, Phebe. (2009). The development of defense mechanisms from pre-adolescence to early adulthood: Do IQ and social class matter? A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality. 43, 464-471.

Cramer, Phebe & Jones, Constance J. (2008). Narcissism, identification, and longitudinal change in psychological health: Dynamic predictions. Journal of Research in Personality. 42, 1148-1159.

Cramer, Phebe. (2008). Identification and the Development of Competence: A 44-year Longitudinal Study from Late Adolescence to Late Middle Age. Psychology and Aging, 23, 410-421.

Cramer, Phebe. (2008). Seven Pillars of Defense Mechanism Theory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass , 2, 1963-1981.

Anderson-Ferguson, Gail & Cramer, Phebe. (2007). Self-esteem among Jamaican children: Exploring the impact of skin color and rural/urban residence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 28, 345-359.

Cramer, Phebe. (2007). Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: Late childhood to late adolescence. Journal of Personality, 75, 1-24.

Cramer, Phebe. (2007). Mining archival data. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley & R. F. Krueger (Eds.) Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Cramer, Phebe & Jones, Constance J. (2007). Defense mechanisms predict differential lifespan change in Self-control and Self-acceptance. Journal of Research in Personality. 41, 841-855.

Cramer, Phebe. (2005). Another “lens” for understanding therapeutic change: The interaction of IQ with defense mechanisms. In J.S. Auerbach, K.N. Levy, & C.E. Schaffer (Eds.) Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt. New York: Routledge. Pp. 120 – 133.

Cramer, Phebe, & Tracy, Allison. (2005). The pathway from child personality to adult adjustment: The road is not straight. Journal of Research in Personality. 39, 369 – 394.

Cramer, Phebe. (2004). Stress, autonomic nervous system reactivity, and defense mechanisms. In U. Hentschel, G. Smith, J.G. Draguns, & W. Ehlers (Eds.) Defense mechanisms: Theoretical, research and clinical perspectives. Advances in Psychology, vol. 136, pp. 325 – 349.

Cramer, Phebe. (2004). Identity change in adulthood: The contribution of defense mechanisms and life experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 280-316.

Cramer, Phebe, & Kelly, Francis D. (2004). Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 139-145.

Sandstrom, Marlene, & Cramer, Phebe. (2003). Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 487-495

Cramer, Phebe. (2003). Defense mechanisms and physiological reactivity to stress. Journal of personality, 71, 221-244.

Cramer, Phebe. (2003). Personality change in later adulthood is predicted by defense mechanism use in early adulthood. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 76-104.

Cramer, Phebe & Anderson, Gail. (2003). Ethnic/racial attitides and self-identification of black Jamaican and white New England children. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology. 34, 395-416.

Sandstrom, Marlene, & Cramer, Phebe. (2003). Girls’ use of defense mechanisms following peer rejection. Journal of Personality, 71, 605-627.

Cramer, Phebe. (2002). Defense mechanisms, behavior and affect in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 70, 103-126.

Cramer, Phebe. (2002). The study of defense mechanisms: Gender implications. In R.F. Bornstein & J.M. Masling (Eds.), The Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender Role. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 81-127..

Cramer, Phebe. (2001). Identification and its relation to identity development. Journal of Personality, 69, 667-688.

Cramer, Phebe, and Brilliant, Melissa. (2001). Defense use and defense understanding in children. Journal of Personality, 69, 291-321.

Cramer, Phebe. (2000). Defense mechanisms in Psychology today: Further processes for adaptation. American Psychologist, 55, 637-646.

Cramer, Phebe. (2000). The development of identity: Gender makes a difference. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 42-72.

Cramer, Phebe. (1999). Ego functions and ego development: Defense mechanisms and intelligence as predictors of ego level. Journal of Personality, 67, 735-760.

Cramer, Phebe. (1999). Change in defense mechanisms during psychoanalysis and psychotherapy: A case study. In The Psychoanalytic Study of Lives Over Time: Clinical and Research Perspective on Children Who Return to Treatment in Adulthood. (Eds. B. Cohler & J. Cohen). Academic Press. pp. 309-330.

Cramer, Phebe & Westergren, Heather. (1999). Gender identity: Affected by social change? Journal of Personality Assessment, 73, 19-30.

Cramer, Phebe. (1999). Personality, personality disorders, and defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 67, 535-554.

Cramer, Phebe. (1999). Future directions for the Thematic Apperception Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72, 74-92.

Cramer, Phebe, & Davidson, Karina. (Eds.)(1998). Defense mechanisms in current personality research. Special Issue, Journal of Personality, 66, 879-1157.

Cramer, Phebe. (1998). Coping and defense mechanisms: What’s the difference? Journal of Personality, 66, 919-946.

Cramer, Phebe. (1998). Defensiveness and defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 66, 879-894.

Cramer, Phebe, & Steinwert, Tiffany. (1998). Thin is good, fat is bad: How early does it begin? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19, 417-439.

Cramer, Phebe. (1998). Freshman to Senior Year: A Follow-up study of identity, narcissism and defense mechanisms. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 156-172.

Cramer, Phebe. (1998). Threat to gender representation: Identity an identification. Journal of Personality, 66, 335-357.

Cramer, Phebe. (1998). Approaching the Thematic Apperception Test. In (L. Handler & M. Hilsenroth, Eds.) Teaching and Learning Personality Assessment. New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates. Pp. 247-265.

Cramer, Phebe & Block, Jack. (1998). Preschool antecedents of defense mechanism use in young adults. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 159-169.

Cramer, Phebe. (1997). Evidence for change in children’s use of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 65, 233-247.

Cramer, Phebe. (1997). Identity, personality and defense mechanisms: An observer-based study. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 58-77.

Cramer, Phebe. (1995). Identity, narcissism and defense mechanisms in late adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 341-361.

Cramer, Phebe, & Blatt, Sidney J. (1993). Change in defense mechanisms following intensive treatment, as related to personality organizationand gender. In W. Ehlers, U. Hentschel, G. smith, & J. G. Draguns, Eds., The Concept of Defense Mechanisms in Contemporary Psychology. New York: Springer-Verlag. Pp. 310-320.

Cramer, Phebe, & Skidd, Jody. (1992). Correlates of self-worth in pre-schoolers: The role of gender-stereotyped styles of behavior. Sex Roles, 26, 369-390.

Cramer, Phebe. (1991). Anger and the use of defense mechanisms in college students. Journal of Personality, 59, 39-55.

Cramer, Phebe, & Blatt, Sidney J. (1990). Use of TAT to measure changes in defense mechanisms following intensive psychotherapy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 236-251.

Dollinger, Stephen, & Cramer, Phebe. (1990). Children’s defensive responses and emotional upset following a disaster: A projective assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 116-127.

Cramer, Phebe, & Gaul, Robin. (1988). The effects of success and failure on children’s use of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 56,729-742.

Cramer, Phebe, Blatt, Sidney J., & Ford, Richard Q. (1988). Defense mechanisms in the anacliticand introjective personality configuration. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 610-616.

Cramer, Phebe. (1988). The Defense Mechanism Inventory: A review of research and discussion of the scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 142-164.

Cramer, Phebe. (1987). The development of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 55, 597-614.

Cramer, Phebe. (1986). Fantasies of college men: Then and Now. Psychoanalytic Review, 73, 567-578.